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Diazepam is mainly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks and symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. It is also used as a premedication for inducing sedation, anxiolysis, or amnesia before certain medical procedures (e.g., endoscopy). Diazepam is the drug of choice for treating benzodiazepine dependence with its long half-life allowing easier dose reduction. Benzodiazepines have a relatively low toxicity in overdose.
Diazepam has a number of uses including:
- Treatment of anxiety, panic attacks, and states of agitation
- Treatment of neurovegetative symptoms associated with vertigo
- Treatment of the symptoms of alcohol, opiate, and benzodiazepine withdrawal
- Short-term treatment of insomnia
- Treatment of tetanus, together with other measures of intensive treatment
- Adjunctive treatment of spastic muscular paresis (paraplegia/tetraplegia) caused by cerebral or spinal cord conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injury (long-term treatment is coupled with other rehabilitative measures)
- Palliative treatment of stiff person syndrome
- Pre- or postoperative sedation, anxiolysis and/or amnesia (e.g., before endoscopic or surgical procedures)
- Treatment of complications with a hallucinogen crisis and stimulant overdoses and psychosis, such as LSD, cocaine, or methamphetamine
- Preventative treatment of oxygen toxicity during hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Dosages should be determined on an individual basis, depending on the condition being treated, severity of symptoms, patient body weight, and any other conditions the person may have.
Intravenous diazepam or lorazepam are first-line treatments for status epilepticus. However, intravenous lorazepam has advantages over intravenous diazepam, including a higher rate of terminating seizures and a more prolonged anticonvulsant effect. Diazepam gel was better than placebo gel in reducing the risk of non-cessation of seizures. Diazepam is rarely used for the long-term treatment of epilepsy because tolerance to its anticonvulsant effects usually develops within six to 12 months of treatment, effectively rendering it useless for that purpose.
The anticonvulsant effects of diazepam can help in the treatment of seizures due to a drug overdose or chemical toxicity as a result of exposure to sarin, VX, or soman (or other organophosphatepoisons), lindane, chloroquine, physostigmine, or pyrethroids.
It is sometimes used intermittently for the prevention of febrile seizures that may occur in children under five years of age. This use, however, is not typically recommended as the benefits are small and side effects are common. Long-term use of diazepam for the management of epilepsy is not recommended; however, a subgroup of individuals with treatment-resistant epilepsy benefit from long-term benzodiazepines, and for such individuals, clorazepate has been recommended due to its slower onset of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects.
Diazepam is used for the emergency treatment of eclampsia, when IV magnesium sulfate and blood-pressure control measures have failed. Benzodiazepines do not have any pain-relieving properties themselves, and are generally recommended to avoid in individuals with pain. However, benzodiazepines such as diazepam can be used for their muscle-relaxant properties to alleviate pain caused by muscle spasms and various dystonias, including blepharospasm. Tolerance often develops to the muscle relaxant effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam.Baclofen or tizanidine is sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam.
The United States military employs a specialized diazepam preparation known as Convulsive Antidote, Nerve Agent (CANA), which contains diazepam. One CANA kit is typically issued to service members, along with three Mark I NAAK kits, when operating in circumstances where chemical weapons in the form of nerve agents are considered a potential hazard. Both of these kits deliver drugs using autoinjectors. They are intended for use in “buddy aid” or “self aid” administration of the drugs in the field prior to decontamination and delivery of the patient to definitive medical care.
Kitty Dukakis: Electroshock Therapy Has Given Me A New Lease On Life
David Greene talks to Kitty Dukakis and her husband, former Mass. Gov. Michael Dukakis, about their campaign to destigmatize electroshock therapy. She has used it to alleviate severe depression.
30 year Headache! « on: October 16, 2016, 01:09:45 pm »
In 1986 I was prescribed Ativan…….In 1995 Diazepam was substituted. until the last year I was unable to come of Benzos. This time last year I was on 40mg of Diazepam daily ( Taken in one go in the morning ) I was told by the local GP surgery I had to come off them. What staggers me is the lack of information, total lack of support. I have done my own research. Phoned a helpline in Bristol. Presented an ignorant GP with tapering guidelines. X wanted me to cut from 15mg to 20mg in less than 2 weeks…The withdrawal was horrendous and totally ruined my Christmas and that of other family members. X Told me I was not suffering from Withdrawal 18 days later and told me I was depressed……Giving me anti-depressant medication.”016 has seen me totally on my own try to withdrawal…I am now down to 8mg and am horrified to feel so awful on trying to cut by 1mg every 2 weeks. I live with daily tension headaches and have had them since taking Ativan years ago…they hav3 never gone away. I just want to share with others anything that can be helpful and also to top feeling so alone in this daily struggle. This last week has been one of the worst weeks of my whole life…..Thank you […]
Ladies- Benzo Breasts? « on: July 29, 2016, 01:47:20 am »
probably the most annoying and maybe nice at the same time SXS that I have had for the past 5 months or so is Benzo breasts. They are often painful as hell, starting to get lumpy, although they feel equally lumpy on either side. I often get like shooting pain on the sides as well as overall soreness. They are very full, as if I had an enlargement done, but I havent.
Did any of you also experience this, and found that it eventually went away?
I have asked my doctor about this, she didn’t seem overly concerned. I’m guessing its from the benzo withdrawl, but i may have her do an exam next time I see her just to be on the safe side.
Two hundred years after the discovery of vaccine by the English physician Edward Jenner, immunization can be credited with saving approximately 9 million lives a year worldwide. A further 16 million deaths a year could be prevented if effective vaccines were deployed against all potentially vaccine-preventable diseases.
So far only one disease, smallpox, has been eradicated by vaccines, saving approximately five million lives annually.
Polio could be next. Over 80% of the world’s children are now being immunized against the polio virus, and the annual number of cases has been cut from 400,000 in 1980 to 90,000 in the mid-1990s. If the year 2000 goal of eradicating polio is achieved, the United States will be able to save the $270 million a year that is currently spent on polio vaccination. The savings for Western European countries will amount to about $200 million a year.
Measles, currently killing 1.1 million children a year, is another possible candidate for eradication. Once high levels of routine immunization have been achieved, national immunization days, followed by close monitoring and ‘blitzing’ of any outbreaks, can eliminate the disease.
In all, vaccines have brought seven major human diseases under some degree of control – smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles.
Most of the vaccines now in use have been available for several decades, but only in the last 15 years has protection been extended to the majority of children in the developing world. Only about a quarter were being immunized when, in the mid-1980s, UNICEF and WHO called for a new commitment to regularly reaching 80% of infants by 1990. In most nations, that goal was reached and has since been sustained – saving over 3 million young lives each year. As frequent disease is also a major cause of malnutrition, immunization is also helping to protect the normal growth of millions of children.
The table below summarizes the progress so far.
Immunization: the story so far
Progress to date against diseases for which vaccines already exist and deaths from diseases for which vaccines might be developed.
NOTE: Figures for the number of deaths that would occur in the absence of immunization are generally calculated by taking the known mortality rate of each disease in the unvaccinated and applying it to the total population.
Yellow fever still causes an estimated 30,000 deaths a year but is omitted from this table because information is not available on the number of deaths currently prevented by vaccination.
* Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is preventing approximately 1 million deaths a year from the dehydration that is one of the most common consequences of diarrhoeal disease. Vaccines, which could prevent infection, may become available.
SOURCE: Estimates supplied by Children’s Vaccine Initiative, Geneva, February 1996.