IN PRAISE OF VALIUM

Medical uses

Diazepam tablets (2, 5, and 10 mg)

Diazepam is mainly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks and symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. It is also used as a premedication for inducing sedation, anxiolysis, or amnesia before certain medical procedures (e.g., endoscopy).[11][12] Diazepam is the drug of choice for treating benzodiazepine dependence with its long half-life allowing easier dose reduction. Benzodiazepines have a relatively low toxicity in overdose.[7]

Diazepam has a number of uses including:

Dosages should be determined on an individual basis, depending on the condition being treated, severity of symptoms, patient body weight, and any other conditions the person may have.[18]

Seizures

Intravenous diazepam or lorazepam are first-line treatments for status epilepticus.[7][20] However, intravenous lorazepam has advantages over intravenous diazepam, including a higher rate of terminating seizures and a more prolonged anticonvulsant effect. Diazepam gel was better than placebo gel in reducing the risk of non-cessation of seizures.[21] Diazepam is rarely used for the long-term treatment of epilepsy because tolerance to its anticonvulsant effects usually develops within six to 12 months of treatment, effectively rendering it useless for that purpose.[18][22]

The anticonvulsant effects of diazepam can help in the treatment of seizures due to a drug overdose or chemical toxicity as a result of exposure to sarin, VX, or soman (or other organophosphatepoisons), lindane, chloroquine, physostigmine, or pyrethroids.[18][23]

It is sometimes used intermittently for the prevention of febrile seizures that may occur in children under five years of age.[7] This use, however, is not typically recommended as the benefits are small and side effects are common.[24] Long-term use of diazepam for the management of epilepsy is not recommended; however, a subgroup of individuals with treatment-resistant epilepsy benefit from long-term benzodiazepines, and for such individuals, clorazepate has been recommended due to its slower onset of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects.[7]

Other

Diazepam is used for the emergency treatment of eclampsia, when IV magnesium sulfate and blood-pressure control measures have failed.[25][26] Benzodiazepines do not have any pain-relieving properties themselves, and are generally recommended to avoid in individuals with pain.[27] However, benzodiazepines such as diazepam can be used for their muscle-relaxant properties to alleviate pain caused by muscle spasms and various dystonias, including blepharospasm.[28][29] Tolerance often develops to the muscle relaxant effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam.[30]Baclofen[31] or tizanidine is sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam.

Availability

Diazepam is marketed in over 500 brands throughout the world.[32] It is supplied in oral, injectable, inhalation, and rectal forms.[18][33][34]

The United States military employs a specialized diazepam preparation known as Convulsive Antidote, Nerve Agent (CANA), which contains diazepam. One CANA kit is typically issued to service members, along with three Mark I NAAK kits, when operating in circumstances where chemical weapons in the form of nerve agents are considered a potential hazard. Both of these kits deliver drugs using autoinjectors. They are intended for use in “buddy aid” or “self aid” administration of the drugs in the field prior to decontamination and delivery of the patient to definitive medical care.[35]

Kooky Monday: Potatoes contain diazepam

POTATOES contain DIAZEPAM !!! MOTHER NATURE is mad...
« on: March 12, 2017, 04:05:53 pm »

Hi All,
i put what i have read
is it true?? if YES i won’t eat potatoes anymore for years !!  

post @ poppies.org

“We must be talking the atropa alkaloids right? No….not really…in the last few years it was noticed that plants such as wheat and potatoes accumulated benzodiazepines…more recently it was demonstrated that sterile plant cultures (Solanum tuberosum and Artemesia dracunculus) are capable of synthesizing various 5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepines (the pharmacologically active type) including diazepam, N-desmethyldiazpam, delorazepam, delorazepam, lorazepam etc…(see Kavvadias et al, 2000 Biochem Biophys Res Comm 269:290) thus indicating that the plant (and not some bacterial or fungal contaminant) is producing these compounds. In this paper, they culture a number of plants in sterile conditions including potato (Solanum tuberosum) and French tarragon (Artemesia dracunculus) and then identified the presence of these compounds using benzodiazepine receptor assays (using brain membranes) and via preparative HPLC-ESI- MS/MS using known benzodiazepine standards for comparison. So it seems pretty certain that these plants really are producing these compounds (albeit in low amounts – for example temazepam was found at 100-450 ng/g FW in potato cultures). The pathway to these compounds is also totally unknown really…it has been suggested that a pathway similar to that found in penicillium leading to cyclopeptine and utilizing anthranilate, tyrosine and glycine to form the benzo skeleton is responsible for their formation at least in these fungi…i have my suspicions that the whole pathway is based on benzoic acid, glycine and anthranilate in plants however, with a mechanism similar to that used in the biosynthesis of tryptophan…anyways…

does anyone else want to put in their two cents on this?

can we start engineering potatoes to produce benzos?

Not that i really consider the benzos to be sacramental in anyway, but i don’t know what other forum to post this in…”